This how-to is provided because I've spent several hours in order to accomplish a simple recommendation in the Django documentation to use virtual environments for developing.
I wasn't able to find a concise and simple way to do this and had to take a dive in several pieces of general Python tools:
I'm running Ubuntu 12.04 and the Python 2.7.3 default interpreter. This is supposed to work on Debian Wheezy (7.0) too.
sudo apt-get install python-pip
virtualenv in Python to develop and run your application in is highly recommended in order to be able to satisfy the latest dependencies on the usually 'older' Ubuntu system.
I really like to use virtualenvwrapper for this task.
Let's install it:
sudo pip install virtualenvwrapper
Above is the last global
pip command we've used and the last requiring root privileges - everything from here on will be inside a virtual environment within your home directory!
Avoid the use of
pip for installing Python packages system-wide.
I'm encouraging the use of
pip, but only inside a virtualenv.
We need to install virtualenv and virtualenvwrapper, so those are the only ones we're installing system-wide.
The actual environments are to be located in a directory of your choice. I like to use the suggested default
Execute these commands (customize the directory if you like):
mkdir -p $WORKON_HOME
Install the last line in your shell startup file as well, unless you want to type it in every newly opened shell:
echo "source /usr/local/bin/virtualenvwrapper.sh" >> ~/.profile
To create a new environment with the name
Create as many as you like.
/usr/local/bin/virtualenvwrapper.sh script added to your shell startup provided a prompt prefix to list which environment you're currently in.
(env2) gert@gert-laptop:~ $
It also provides a whole set of commands to manage them:
- List environments:
cpvirtualenv env1 env2(you'll now be on ''env2'')
To enter another environment:
to move to ''env2''.
To leave any environment and go back to the general system environment (this was hard to find - undocumented!):
From the Virtualenvwrapper documentation on Project management you'll notice it has a feature to use in your projects. What's this about? Well, it's very simple—suppose you have a Python code project and you want to bind it one-to-one to a specific environment, then this is what projects are for.
Binding a virtualenv to a project directory will result in nothing more than changing to the project directory whenever you use the
Setting/changing a project directory to the environment is just this (run being inside the project dir):
The version of
pip we installed on the system is different from the one installed in the environments.
Please check this to have at least version 1.3 in your environments:
gert@gert-laptop:~ $ pip --version
pip 1.0 from /usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages (python 2.7)
gert@gert-laptop:~ $ workon env2
(env2) gert@gert-laptop:~ $ pip --version
pip 1.3.1 from /home/gert/Envs/env1/lib/python2.7/site-packages/pip-1.3.1-py2.7.egg (python 2.7)
Within a virtual environment...
pip install packagename
- Install specific version (e.g. Django 1.5):
pip install Django==1.5
- List all available packages in the environment:
- List packages only installed locally:
pip list --local
- List in the special Requirements format (see below):
pip uninstall packagename
Just like you installed the package using
pip, you can create a specification for all the packages your project requires.
For each package put it on a new line.
Or list those using
This file is usually called
requirements.txt for a Python project.
Users are then able to satisfy these easily by issuing:
pip install -r requirements.txt